Why unripe apples fall and how to deal with it
It's a shame when green apples fall off. So much labor has been put into the garden, and the unripe fruits lie on the ground like a solid carpet. There are several reasons for this phenomenon. Most of them are easy to remove and save the crop.
Reasons for falling apples and how to fix it
Unripe apple fruits are crumbled in many orchards. This happens when damaged by pests, lack of proper care and due to the physiology of the tree. Sometimes the crop is completely lost.
Falling apples is a nuisance that can be corrected
Pollination problems and attracting bees
The apple tree is a cross-pollinated tree, therefore, for good tying, it is necessary to select inter-pollinated varieties. Poorly pollinated ovaries will crumble. In addition, fruit does not form at all if there are no bees in the garden. They attract them like this: dissolve 2 tbsp in a bucket of water. l. honey and sprayed trees. Fruit formation also improves when apple trees are treated with Ovary during flowering.
Bees feed on nectar and pollen and pollinate trees at the same time
Pests and their destruction
Unripe fruits fall en masse when the apple moth is affected. The butterfly caterpillar eats away the seed chambers. Such fruits do not develop and the tree rejects them. The larvae are also dangerous because they contribute to the infection of the tree with fungal diseases.
The flight of the codling moth butterfly begins from the beginning of flowering of the apple tree and lasts 1.5–2 months
To destroy the pest, the trees are sprayed with chemicals:
This is done 14 days after the end of the flowering of apple trees. At this time, caterpillars are born from eggs laid by butterflies.
The caterpillar of the codling moth eats not only apples, but also pears, apricots, peaches, quince and plum
Opponents of chemistry reduce the pest population using traps - containers with fermented apple juice suspended from tree branches.
Sugar syrup can also be used in the trap if yeast is added to it.
Farms use special pheromone traps. They are expensive but effective.
Pheromone traps attract male codling moths
The codling moth butterfly lays up to 150 eggs. Having spoiled one apple, the caterpillar penetrates into another. One pest "bites" from 1 to 3 fruits.
When the wormy apple falls to the ground, the caterpillar gets out of it and crawls up the tree again. To prevent this, trapping belts are made from newspapers and attached to the trunk. The paper is moistened with a contact action insecticide. The caterpillar crawls into the trap and is poisoned. The belts are renewed every 7 days, re-impregnated with poison. Ideally, you need to regularly remove the scavenger from under the tree, then the traps will not be needed.
The hunting belt will not allow the caterpillars to continue their "feast" on the apple tree
When the ripening of apples approaches, the trees are treated with biological products:
Lepidocide destroys larvae, but is safe for humans
By winter, some caterpillars hide under peeling bark, enveloping themselves in a silk cocoon. Old bark in the fall must be cleaned with a scraper and exterminate pests. Other specimens hibernate in the soil under an apple tree at a depth of up to 3 cm. They are destroyed by digging with a turnover of the layer. With the onset of frost, the larvae will die.
When digging a tree trunk circle, wintering pests die and air access to the roots improves
Fighting moth - video
Violation of agricultural technology
On light soils, apples often crumble when there is a lack of moisture. Whether watering is required is easy to check: dig up the soil, take a lump of earth from the depth and squeeze it. If it crumbles, watering is necessary. However, waterlogging is also dangerous, so it is worth observing the watering norms: 10 buckets are spent on adult apple trees, and 5 buckets of water on young ones.
Light soil, such as sandy loam contains a lot of sand and therefore dries quickly
Fertilizing errors have consequences. Excess nitrogen leads to early loss of ovaries. If a bias is detected in the mineral nutrition, the apple tree is fed with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers, but not in dry form. If there is double superphosphate, then a matchbox of fertilizer is dissolved in 10 liters of water and the tree is watered. As a potassium supplement, a solution of potassium sulfate, potassium magnesium is used. The listed fertilizers can be replaced with ash infusion: pour a liter can of ash with a bucket of hot water and leave for 24 hours.
Ash contains potassium, phosphorus and many beneficial trace elements
Sometimes green fruits fall off due to the self-regulation of the apple tree. The tree always blooms profusely, but it is not able to "feed" all the formed ovaries and discards the extra ones. This is a natural process and there is nothing you can do about it. Self-cleaning of the tree can also occur with too much harvest. To keep the branches from breaking, the tree rejects some of the unripe fruits.
Reasons for falling apples - video
What to do with fallen fruits
Green apples are most often placed in a compost heap, but before that they are cut up and the caterpillars are destroyed. Apple layers are stratified with dry plant residues, paper, earth. Fallen fruits are suitable for preparing warm beds for cucumbers. It is better to bury apples infected with diseases away from the apple trees and as deep as possible.
The compost heap should not be higher than 1 meter, for proper decomposition of the ingredients, air must be available
Constantly losing most of the harvest due to the moth, I went to the following processing scheme. At the end of flowering, I count 2 weeks and spray the trees with Aktara. At the beginning of summer, I use an insecticide of systemic action, since contact poisons do not help. My trees are mature, it is impossible to process the entire crown. Therefore, those caterpillars that did not get the chemical did not die. The systemist penetrates everywhere. By the time the apples ripen, I use biological products every 2 weeks. I regularly remove fallen fruits. As a result, most of the apples ripen on the tree.
Most often, apples fall off due to the introduction of the moth. It is possible to avoid the attack of caterpillars with the help of spraying and traps. Proper tree care is also important: watering and feeding. These actions will surely save the harvest. In the fall, it is necessary to clean the trunk of dead bark and dig up the ground under the crown.